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The CPU card is a kind of IC card and is a real smart card

Update time:2022-12-07 09:18:46 / Views:44

The CPU card is a kind of IC card and is a real smart card. There are microprocessor CPU, storage unit (including random access memory) RAM, program memory ROM (FLASH), user data memory EEPROM) and chip operating system COS in the integrated circuit in the card. The CPU card equipped with COS is equivalent to a microcomputer, which not only has the function of data storage, but also has the functions of command processing and data security protection.

The CPU card is a kind of IC card and is a real smart card

Due to haven't master the key production process, the CPU card chip originally designed in China has been produced abroad.  At present, the capacity of CPU cards independently designed and manufactured in China reaches 128K.  The CPU card can be used in finance, insurance, traffic police, government industries and other fields.  It has the characteristics of large user space, fast reading speed, and supports multi-purpose cards.  It has passed the certification of the People's Bank of China and the National Commercial Secretary Committee.


To understand what is a CPU card, we must start with the IC card.


An IC card is an integrated circuit card (Integrated Circuit Card) referred to as a plastic card embedded with an integrated circuit chip, and its shape and size conform to the international standard (ISO). Chips generally use non-volatile memories (ROM, EEPROM), and microprocessors to protect logic circuits and even CPU.


The IC card with CPU is a real smart card. According to the form of embedded integrated circuit chip and chip type IC card can be roughly divided into contact type, non-contact type, dual interface card.

Classification of CPU cards


Non-encrypted memory card: The integrated circuit chip in the card is mainly EEPROM, which has data storage function, no data processing function and hardware encryption function.


Logic encryption memory card: An encryption logic circuit is added on the basis of a non-encryption memory card. Encryption logic protects the data in the card from external access by checking the password, but only has a low level of security protection and cannot prevent malicious attacks.

Standardization of CPU cards


As the economies of countries around the world are developing in the direction of internationalization, a global financial service system has been established, which has brought about card interoperability issues. Use the same card in different countries and environments. To solve this problem, it is necessary to formulate a series of international standard CPU cards and their interface equipment manufacturers to manufacture products with unified interface specifications in accordance with unified standards, so as to ensure that different countries and industries adopt unified product CPU card software and hardware technical specifications to develop application systems and realize The exchange and sharing of CPU cards and interface devices produced by different manufacturers.


Technical Standards for CPU Cards


Since 1987, the International Organization for Standardization has successively formulated and promulgated international standards for CPU cards. The CPU card itself has the following standards:


●ISO10536: Identification card - non-contact integrated circuit card


●ISO7816: identification card - integrated circuit card with contacts


●ISO7816-1: specifies the physical characteristics of the card. The physical characteristics of the card describe the ability to protect against ultraviolet rays, the dose of X-rays, the mechanical strength of the card and contacts, the ability to resist electromagnetic interference, etc.


●ISO7816-2: specifies the size and location of the card.


●ISO7816-3: specifies the electrical signal and transmission protocol of the card. There are two types of transmission protocols: synchronous transmission protocol and asynchronous transmission protocol


●ISO7816-4: specifies the exchange order between the card industry. Including: command and response information sent in the card and reading room; file, data structure and access method in the card; definition of file and data access rights and security structure in the card. 


The basic features of the CPU card:


●Conform to ISO14443TypeA and ISO dual interface 7816 interface CPU card


●Hardware DES/3DES coprocessor


●Hardware RSA coprocessor


●Hardware SM1 coprocessor


●Hardware random number generator


CPU card function requirements:


●Support PBOC2.0 debit and credit application


●Support PBOC2.0 micropayment application based on loan records


●Support PBOC2.0 non-contact IC card payment application (QPBOC)


●Support PBOC2. Application 0 e-wallet


●Support DDA/CDA authentication


Application Standards for CPU Cards in the Financial Field


China's financial integrated circuit (IC) In March 1998, nearly ten financial units including the People's Bank of China adopted international standards and foreign advanced technology ISO standards and Europay, Mastercard, Visa developed three organizations EMV based on 96, combined with domestic CPU for my country The actual needs of finance and application card CPU specify the basic application of the card.


●ISO992: Financial transaction card - information between integrated circuit card and card receiving equipment


●ISO14443: identification card - contactless card specification (distance 10) cm)


●ISO10202: Financial transaction card - integrated circuit card financial transaction system security structure


●EMV: Integrated Circuit Card Specification and Payment System Integrated Circuit Card Terminal Specification


Compared with other organizations, ISO standards and specifications CPU can refer to relevant standards as needed.


CPU card operating system COS The full name of COS is ChipOperatingSystem (on-chip operating system), which is generally developed around the characteristics of the smart card it serves. Because the performance and memory capacity of the microprocessor chip in the smart card are inevitably affected, COS is largely different from the operating systems (such as DOS, UNIX, etc.) on microcomputers that we can usually see.


Features of COS


First of all, COS is a special system, not a general system. That is to say: generally speaking, a COS can only be applied to specific (or some) smart card COS in different cards are generally different. The coS is generally designed and developed according to the characteristics of the smart card and its application range, although most of the actual functions may follow the same international standard.


Secondly, compared with the operating system on ordinary microcomputers, COS is essentially closer to a monitoring program than a so-called real operating system, at least for now. Because at this stage, the main problem that COS needs to solve is how to process and respond to external commands, which usually does not involve the management and processing of sharing and concurrency. In addition, as far as the current application of smart cards is concerned, concurrency and sharing are really not needed.


COS Basic Principles and Main Functions


In the design of COS, the memory partitions in the smart card are generally closely combined, which conform to some functions stipulated in the international standard (ISO/IEC design and development 7816 series standards. However, due to the current rapid development of smart cards, the development cycle of international standards is relatively long. The current international standard for smart cards is not perfect. Therefore, many manufacturers have developed their own COS and made some extensions. There is no company yet. COS products can form industrial standards. Therefore, here will mainly combine existing international standards (referring to 1994 Previously) COS properly lists its implementation in some products, taking its basic principles and functions as examples.


The main function of COS is to control the smart card and external information exchange, manage the memory in the smart card, and complete various commands in the card. Among them, information exchange with the outside world is the most basic requirement of COS. In the exchange process, COS currently follows the information exchange protocol including the two-character transmission T=0 protocol and the asynchronous packet transmission T=1 protocol. The specific content and implementation mechanism of these two information exchange protocols are specified in the ISO/IEC7816-3 and ISO/IEC7816-3A standards; the basic functions of COS management and control are specified in the ISO/IEC7816-4 standard. In the international standard, the data structure of the smart card and the COS basic command set are described in more detail. As for ISO/IEC7816-1 and 2, the relationship between the physical parameters and the shape and size COS of the smart card is not very close.


CPU card production process


The whole process from manufacture to destruction is called life cycle. The life cycle of an IC card can generally be divided into:


1. Chip manufacturing: IC card manufacturers neatly arrange circuits on silicon wafers through specific manufacturing processes.


2. Module packaging: Many chips are mounted on the printed circuit board with 8 contact points manufactured.


3. Card manufacturing hides the card control system such as the card operating system in the module.


4. Card packaging: Embed mask modules in plastic substrates.


5. Card initialization: set the basic parameters of the card.


6. Install the release key: release slip


7. Card personalization: Create an application file and write in the basic information of the cardholder.


8. Card application: the cardholder uses the card to complete various card functions. Card application: the cardholder uses the card to complete various card functions.


IC cards can be divided into contact cards, contactless cards, and composite cards, and can be divided into non-encrypted memory cards, encrypted memory cards, and equipment technology CPU cards.


The encrypted memory card is the authentication of the cardholder. Only by entering the correct password can the data in the card be accessed or modified. The most typical is the PIN code of the SIM card of the mobile phone; when the PIN is set, the PIN code must be entered after the power is turned on. If the PIN code is entered incorrectly several times in a row, a higher authority PUK code must be used to modify the PIN code. If the PUK code is also continuously entered incorrectly, Just change the card.


Encrypted memory cards ensure cardholder authentication, but are not sufficient to ensure system security.


1. The password input is forged ATM through transparent transmission. This password is easy to intercept on the machine or network;


2. The logical encryption card cannot verify whether the application is legal;


3. The password and encryption algorithm are transparent to the system integrator;


The CPU card guarantees security in three aspects:


1. To the person: cardholder legitimacy authentication: the cardholder needs to enter the password.


2. The legality certification of Kaka; internal certification.


3. System: system legality certification; external certification.


Card legitimacy verification.


Card legitimacy verification:


The random number sent by the CPU card to the card (such as the subway card). After the card receives the random number, it encrypts it with an encryption algorithm and passes the encrypted value to the card CPU. The CPU compares it with the random number sent. If they are equal, the card is considered legal.


System legality certification (such as whether the handheld POS is legally produced by the certified manufacturer):


The CPU card sends a random number to the POS self-contained card or module. The POS self-contained card or module encrypts it randomly and sends it back to the CPU card. The CPU card decrypts it and compares it with the random number sent. If they are equal, the system is considered legal. This process is done at startup.


In the encryption and decryption process, there are two factors, one is the encryption and decryption algorithm, and the other is the key. The CPU is in the card, and there is an operating system COS called the operating system: ChipOS; the card is provided by the card manufacturer and provides encryption and decryption algorithms. The manufacturer of the card must be certified by a specific agency. The key is held by the card issuer, and the card is issued layer by layer, with different permissions.


SAM card: the full name is SecurityAccessmodule; it is a special CPU card; it stores keys and encryption and decryption algorithms.


There are many types of SAM cards:


PSAM card: terminal security control module is generally used for small payment deduction;


ESAM: Manufacturer (system) SAM equipment authentication card;


ISAM: used for recharging;


In concrete implementation, it will be more diverse. For example, some device certifications do not use an ESAM card, but use a special module. In this way, there is a problem that using software to implement the key, there is a key leakage problem; one solution is to store multiple sets of keys and specify a set of keys in a random number.


The issuance of ordinary cards generally uses a key to encrypt the unique physical card number.


Card Cube is a professional smart card manufacturer in China. The company's main products include contact IC cards, inductive IC cards, visual cards, CPU cards, ID cards, and NFC smart cards. The daily output exceeds 400,000 pieces, such as business cards and smart card readers. writer. Now we have customized and developed JHIC-U inductive ic card reader according to the requirements of customers. Its plug-and-play, development-free, and driver-free features have been welcomed by many customers.


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